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Academic career development: historical transformation and modern transition

Academic profession is a vague concept, countries around the world to different understanding of academic profession, refers to objects are not the same, this academic system and features. According to Max Weber dual interpretations of the academic profession, academic career as a sociological concept of materiality and spirituality, and "to academic material in the sense of a professional" reflects the material characteristics of the academic profession, and "academic as a career – reflects the spiritual implication of the academic career, it is with a feeling of religious piety to occupation. And the academic career apart from other professional boundaries is the "academic", and that this occupation is "academic" as the object of work. Chinese scholars on the "academic" understand there are two schools of thought: academic view be understood as "specialized system knowledge", another point of understanding to explore learning, development of learning process.
United States scholar Ernest Boyer from academic functions, that include knowledge, imparting knowledge, General knowledge and applied knowledge in four areas. From these academic definitions, we can form a basic understanding of the academic profession, that the academic profession is specialized and systematic knowledge of research, teaching, and the application object for the job of special professional. Basic characteristics of materiality of the academic profession is professional, and spirituality is by its very nature demands. Starting from the concept of the academic profession, academic professions including university teachers, scientific research institutes, researchers, Governments and other social groups to the technical staff and corporate research and development personnel. United States subject research institutes and researchers is an important part of the University, therefore, United States scholars refer specifically to colleges and universities by academic profession within the meaning of the teaching profession.
France and China are similar to independent study is not attached to the system at the University, researchers and academic professional employees of the research system. Other countries also have their own specific objects. While working in the academic profession in different objects, but for teachers in colleges and universities is the main academic career engaged the crowd and no doubt. This research primarily on College teacher profession as an object. In fact, the academic profession is initially formed to scholars and students based on the establishment of the relationship between teaching and research. Teaching and research of separation or integration brought about by the differentiation of the academic profession is a product of social change in all countries.
, Academic professional formation and the rise of independent academic career at the University of middle ages in Europe. As an independent academic career has several characteristics:
With the expertise in training and academic labour market impact of complying with common academic ethics knowledge as a condition of access to pay; a specialized field of teaching or research; has a permanent or stability; there is a specific job titles; dependent on certain disciplines and professions. From these features, the ancient Chinese Confucian and ancient Greece Plato of the Roman period while engaged in the specialized expertise of research and teaching, but not strictly academic career practitioners can be considered dependent is a broad academic career or academic professional practitioners. United States scholar Mading·fenkeersitan that academic profession is "has a professional background, vulnerability to new knowledge production, along with the academic labour market fluctuations, follow common academic planning and academic ethics autonomy of the profession. "Also reflects the basic features of independent academic careers.
History of 476 ad before the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance period in Europe during the middle ages. In the 2nd century before and after this period, under the influence of socio-economic, political, religious, cultural, a group of scholars began in the streets of Paris by the river "entertainer"-to impart religious knowledge and new ideas, and attracted a large number of voluntary listeners, listeners around the stable and a scholar and voluntarily paid to the scholars paid when the original form of the academic profession occurs. Mostly in academic occupations "intellectual" group, the intellectuals ' word first appeared in the high middle ages, in 2nd century city schools to spread, popular from the 3rd century onwards at the University. ” BACK

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